2015年6月29日,联合国教科文组织总干事伊琳娜·博科娃Irina Bokova)女士在德国波恩举办的第39届世界遗产委员会会议中,启动一项全球针对遗产的联合阵线(查看述链接内容-世界遗产波恩宣言 The Bonn Declaration on World Heritage)联盟。此运动旨在强化各国政府和遗产相关利益者间动员起来,共同面对蓄意破坏文化遗产(特别是中东地区)的挑战。

《世界遗产波恩宣言》

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附件—《世界遗产波恩宣言》(中英文版)

 


世界遗产波恩宣言

 

在第39届会议在德国波恩召开之际

我们,世界遗产委员会的成员,

1.强调在联合国教科文组织成立70周年之际,有必要重振联合国教科文组织自1945年以来制订的核心价值观和原则的必要性;

2.重申以正义、自由与和平为目的的文化和教育对于人类尊严不可或缺,也是所有国家的责任;

3.日益密切地关注在发生武装冲突和自然灾害地区的知名世界遗产地和其他文化遗产地、遗产实体遭到破坏或发生毁坏的现象,同时警惕在这些地区劫掠与非法贩运文化遗产和文物的行为;

4.意识到我们有责任保护因其自然美、独特性和普遍性而具价值的世界遗产,使它们免于过度开发、自然灾害、平民骚乱和/或武装冲突的破坏;

5.忆及联合国教科文组织的七项文化公约,它们相辅相成、彼此加强、共同致力于保护和蕴育所有形式的人类文化和创造力;

6.忆及对为宗教、教育、艺术、科学或慈善目的的建筑物和历史纪念建筑的蓄意攻击可能构成战争犯罪;

7.牢记2003年《教科文组织关于蓄意破坏文化遗产问题的宣言》和联合国教科文组织执行局于2015年4月21日通过的第196EX/29决议中,关于联合国教科文组织出于人道主义关切和安全问题的考虑、在冲突地区保护文化的角色与职责的内容;

8.注意到:

——斯兰合作组织 (OIC) 在联合国教科文组织为支持前述执行局决议96EX/29、针对保护伊拉克、叙利亚和利比亚文化遗产所发表的宣言;

——中东地区和非洲北部国家部长级会议于2015年5月14日发布的《开罗宣言》;

——15年4月30日有关伊拉克和黎凡特伊斯兰国(ISIL / Daesh)对文化遗产地进行造成破坏的欧洲议会决议((2015/2649(RSP));

——联合国教科文组织1970年公约第三次缔约国大会在审议了“秘书处在紧急情况下为打击非法贩运文化财产所采取的行动”报告之后通过的决议3.MSP 9;

9.牢记所有相关的条约、公约、法律文书和宣言,其中包括与在自然灾害方面加强紧急援助相关的内容;

10.忆及联合国安全理事会决议的一系列决议——包括第1484/2003号决议和关于“恐怖主义行为对国际和平与安全造成的威胁”的第2199、2015号决议;

11.同时忆及联合国大会于2015年5月28日通过的关于“拯救伊拉克文化遗产”的第69/281决议、于2015年5月15日通过的“为应对尼泊尔地震造成的破坏性影响加强紧急救援、修复和重建工作”的第69/280号决议、以及其他为保护文化遗产而加强预防犯罪和刑事司法的相关决议;

12.对伊拉克和黎凡特伊斯兰国(ISIL/Daesh)和其他极端组织意图通过根据文化、种族或宗教背景,蓄意攻击个人和社区、以及人们举行礼拜、有特殊记忆和进行学习的场所,以破坏其文化多样性而再三进行袭击、破坏和暴力的行为深感震惊;

13.同时对由非法盗掘、有组织的劫掠和贩卖文物对文化遗产造成越来越多的威胁感到警觉,它们对不可替代的文化魁宝造成了严重的危害,其中包括许多分布在阿富汗、伊拉克、利比亚、马里、叙利亚和也门的联合国教科文组织世界遗产地;

14.呼吁关注中非共和国、科特迪瓦、刚果和尼日尔民主共和国的世界自然遗产地长期以来面临的问题,这些问题很可能在战争状态结束后仍长期存在;

15.为2015年地震对尼泊尔文化遗产和自然遗产造成的巨大破坏感到担忧,也铭记2010年海地地震造成的破坏迄今仍有持续影响;

16.坚信联合国教科文组织的各项文化公约为保护文化和遗产免受各种威胁和挑战、在国家层面采取措施和在国际层面开展合作提供了合适的框架;

17.谴责所谓的伊拉克和黎凡特伊斯兰国(ISIL),又称Daesh,近期针对伊拉克的文化遗产进行的野蛮袭击、暴力和犯罪行为,其中包括位于哈特拉的世界遗产地,这些行径令人联想起在巴米扬、廷巴克图和世界其他地区对文化遗产进行的肆意破坏;

18.谴责参与冲突的各方将文化遗产地暴露在军事行动中或为军事目的利用文化遗产地的行径,包括将遗产地作为参战人员的庇护所、在其中关押当地社区作为人质、以及滥用武器和炸药的行为,这些行为对叙利亚的阿勒颇古城、武士堡、布斯拉古城和其他重要的遗产地造成了大面积的破坏;

19.对同样受到武装冲突造成破坏威胁的帕尔米拉古城遗址世界遗产地表示深切关注;

20.对在也门爆发的持续战争冲突表达最大程度的关注,其冲突造成多处文物古迹和文化遗产遭到破坏,尤其是马里卜古城、萨那古城世界遗产地和亚丁市的文化遗产。

21.谴责将对文物的破坏和劫掠作为战争军事策略、并作为恐怖主义资金来源的行为;

22.呼吁参与武装冲突的各方避免利用文化和自然遗产地和纪念性建筑物服务于军事目的、以它们为军事打击目标的行为,这是对国际法的公然践踏,并呼吁各方遵守其在各项国际条约中应该履行的责任,如1954年《关于武装冲突情况下保护文化财产的海牙公约》及其1999年协定、以及国际惯例法中有关对侵害遗产地的行为保持克制的相关条款;

23.建议联合国安全理事会对在适当情况下、将在一定程度上对遗产进行保护的任务纳入维和行动的可能性进行分析;如针对在武装冲突中和冲突结束后保护文化遗产与非物质文化遗产进行补充训练;提高人们对于文化是战后社会稳定、团结与重建重要资源的意识;

24.很遗憾尼泊尔的文化与自然遗产作为世界遗产不可分割的一部分在最近的地震中遭到了严重的破坏和损失,并邀请所有缔约国继续积极实施于2015年5月15日通过的有关“为应对尼泊尔地震造成的破坏性影响加强紧急救援、修复和重建工作”的第69/280号决议;

25.提醒加入《世界遗产公约》的缔约国其具有在国家和国际层面保护具有突出普遍价值的文化与自然遗产的义务、以及对其筹集充足资金以帮助联合国教科文组织履行职责也有日益增长的要求,并为此目的,呼吁缔约国通过更迅速和充分地应对紧急情况、考虑双边或多边项目和各种形式合作的要求以及最近成立的联合国教科文组织世界遗产紧急援助基金,履行其保护自然和文化遗产的职责;

26.鼓励那些尚未加入《世界遗产公约》和其他有关文化的国际法律文件的国家签署这些公约和文件。

27.号召缔约国对其是否落实适当的法律约束以及其他工具的情况进行评估,并在国家层面加强其保护文化与自然遗产的立法与实践,同时为打击文物的非法贩运和非法交易采取更为有效的措施;

28.号召缔约国和其他相关方,加强在保护和保存文化遗产方面的政府间合作与执法合作,并加强所有相关第三方的积极参与——尤其是活跃在艺术和文化领域的第三方——作为全面打击所有形式非法贩运文化遗产的措施;

29.欢迎联合国教科文组织为抵制仇恨宣传、针对专业团体和个人、尤其是年轻人发起的 “为遗产而联合”的运动,以及由联合国教科文组织总干事为文化保护发起的一个“全球联盟”,该联盟旨在将来自文化、人道主义、安全和其他相关部门的国际社会和参与者围绕保护文化和促进文化多元主义而采取行动的共同的目的团结在一起。

30.敦促联合国教科文组织与“国际机构间人道主义协同体系”保持一致,加强其在实施和协调于武装冲突或自然灾害的情况下保护遗产的综合应对行动中的国际领导地位;

31.邀请联合国教科文组织各文化公约的所有缔约国在联合国教科文组织的领导下联合并分享其专业知识与技能,并为实现利益最大化协调其双边和国际紧急援助项目;

32.承诺将推动本宣言的各项目标,以加强文化和自然遗产的国际保护,并承诺为联合国教科文组织总干事发起的“全球联盟”作出积极贡献,因为我们认识到要建设明天的和平事业,必须在今天捍卫我们具有多样性和包容性的共同遗产。

(以上《世界遗产波恩宣言》中文翻译转载自“清源文化遗产”微信公众号—mobiheritage,作者CHCC)

 

 

The Bonn Declaration on World Heritage

 

On the occasion of its 39th session in Bonn/Germany

We, the members of the World Heritage Committee,

1. Emphasizing the need in the year of the 70th anniversary to revive the core values and principles forged by UNESCO since 1945,

2. Reaffirming that culture and education for justice, liberty and peace are indispensable to human dignity and the duty of all states,

3. Growingly concerned about the physical damages inflicted or occurred in prominent world heritage and other cultural sites in areas exposed to armed conflict and natural disasters and also alarmed by the looting and illicit trafficking of cultural properties and assets in those areas,

4. Conscious of our responsibility to safeguard World Heritage sites valued for their natural beauty, uniqueness and universality against, overexploitation, natural disasters, civilian unrest and/or armed conflicts,

5. Recalling UNESCO’s seven culture conventions designed to complement and reinforce each other to safeguard and nurture human culture and creativity in all its forms,

6. Recalling that intentional attacks against buildings dedicated to religion, education, art, science or charitable purposes and historic monuments may amount to war crimes;

7. Bearing in mind the 2003 UNESCO Declaration concerning Intentional Destruction of Cultural Heritage and UNESCO Executive Board Decision 196EX/29 of 21 April 2015 on UNESCO’s role and responsibilities in protecting culture in conflict areas as a humanitarian concern and safety issue;

8. Taking note of:

- the Declaration of the Organization of the Islamic Cooperation (OIC) Group at UNESCO on Safeguarding of Iraqi, Syrian and Libyan Cultural Heritage supporting the aforementioned Executive Board Decision 196EX/29;

- the Cairo Declaration by the Ministerial Conference of Middle East and Northern African States of 14 May 2015;

- the European Parliament Resolution of 30 April 2015 on the destruction of cultural sites perpetrated by ISIL/Daesh (2015/2649(RSP);

- Resolution 3.MSP 9 of the 3rd Meeting of States Parties to the UNESCO 1970 Convention (18-20 May 2015) following the report on the actions undertaken by the Secretariat to fight against illicit trafficking of cultural property in emergency situations;

9. Keeping in mind all relevant treaties, conventions, legal instruments and declarations, including the ones to strengthen emergency assistance in the field of natural disasters,

10. Recalling United Nations Security Council resolutions: including Resolution 1483 (2003), Resolution 2199 (2015) on threats to international peace and security caused by terrorist acts,

11. Also recalling United Nations General Assembly resolutions 69/281 on Saving the Cultural Heritage of Iraq adopted on 28 May 2015 and 69/280 on Strengthening Emergency Relief, Rehabilitation and Reconstruction in Response to the Devastating Effects of the Earthquake in Nepal adopted on 15 May 2015, as well as other resolutions strengthening crime prevention and criminal justice responses to protect cultural properties,

12. Deeply shocked by repeated attacks, destructions and violence perpetrated by ISIL/Daesh and other extremist groups, aimed at destroying cultural diversity through deliberate targeting of individuals and communities on the basis of cultural, ethnic or religious background, as well as places of worship, memory and learning,

13. Also alarmed by the increasing number of threats to cultural heritage through illegal excavations, organized looting and trafficking of cultural objects, which seriously undermine irreplaceable cultural treasures, among them UNESCO World Heritage sites in Afghanistan, Iraq, Libya, Mali, Syria and Yemen,

14. Calling attention to the enduring problems at natural world heritage sites in the Central African Republic, Côte d’Ivoire, the Democratic Republic of Congo and Niger, which are likely to continue long after the end of hostilities,

15. Greatly concerned by the enormous damage caused to Nepal’s cultural and natural heritage by the earthquake in 2015 , and also remembering still continuing effects of the devastation caused by the earthquake in Haiti in 2010;

16. Convinced that UNESCO’s culture Conventions provide the proper framework for national measures and international cooperation in protecting culture and heritage against all threats and challenges;

17. Condemn the barbaric assaults, violence and crimes committed in recent times by the so called Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) also known as Daesh against the cultural heritage of Iraq, including the World Heritage site at Hatra, which recalls mindless destructions in Bamiyan, Timbuktu and elsewhere;

18. Deplore the exposure of and use of cultural heritage sites in military operations by the parties to various conflicts, including as shelter to protect combatants, to keep hostage local indigenous communities and by indiscriminate use of weapons and explosives, which resulted in widespread destruction of Aleppo, Crac de Chevaliers, Bosra and other significant sites;

19. Express deep concern about the World Heritage site of Palmyra, which also has been exposed to threat of destruction because of armed conflict;

20. Express utmost concern about the continuing hostilities in Yemen, which inflict damage to cultural sites and properties especially in the ancient city of Marib, the World Heritage Site of the Old City of Sana’a and the city of Aden;

21. Denounce the destruction and looting of cultural objects used as a tactic of war and as a source to fund terrorism;

22. Call upon all parties to armed conflicts to refrain from military use or targeting of cultural and natural heritage sites and monuments that constitute flagrant violation of international law and to comply with their obligations under international treaties such as the 1954 Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict and its 1999 Protocol as well as relevant rules of customary international law, to refrain from any act of aggression against heritage sites;

23. Recommend that the Security Council analyzes the possibility of introducing a specific dimension of heritage protection in the mandates of peacekeeping missions where appropriate; delivering for instance complementary training modules focusing on the protection of cultural property both tangible and intangible, during and in the aftermath of armed conflicts; raising awareness of culture as a critical resource for the stability, social cohesion and reconstruction of societies affected by war;

24. Regret that Nepal’s cultural and natural heritage which is inseparable part of world heritage suffered severe damage and losses during recent earthquakes and invite all States Parties to vigorously continue implementing Resolution 69/280 on Strengthening Emergency Relief, Rehabilitation and Reconstruction in Response to the Devastating Effects of the Earthquake in Nepal adopted on 15 May 2015;

25. Remind States Parties to the World Heritage Convention of their obligation to safeguard cultural and natural heritage of Outstanding Universal Value at the national and international level and the growing need to raise sufficient funds to help UNESCO fulfill its mandate, and towards that end appeal them to fulfill their obligations in preserving natural and cultural heritage by responding more quickly and substantially to emergency situations, taking into consideration the requirements of bilateral or multilateral programs and forms of cooperation as well as the recently established UNESCO Heritage Emergency Fund;

26. Encourage States that have not yet ratified the World Heritage Convention and other cultural international legal instruments to do so;

27. Call upon States Parties to evaluate their implementation of pertinent legally binding and other instruments and to strengthen their national legislation and practice for the protection of cultural and natural heritage, also by introducing more effective measures to combat illicit trafficking and illegal trade of cultural properties;

28. Call upon States Parties and other interested parties, to strengthen their intergovernmental and law-enforcement cooperation on the protection and preservation of cultural heritage, as well as to reinforce active participation of all interested third parties - especially those active in the fields of art and culture - in measures to combat all forms and aspects of trafficking in cultural properties;

29. Welcome UNESCO’s #Unite4Heritage campaign for countering the propaganda of hatred and addressing professional communities and individuals, in particular the young people, as well as the launching by the Director-General of UNESCO of a Global Coalition for the protection of culture aimed at rallying the international community and actors from the cultural, humanitarian, security and other relevant sectors around an agreed agenda for action for the protection of culture and the promotion of cultural pluralism;

30. Request UNESCO to enhance its international leadership in the operationalization and coordination of a comprehensive response to the protection of heritage in the event of armed conflict or natural disaster in agreement with the International Inter-Agency Humanitarian Coordination System;

31. Invite all States Parties to UNESCO Culture Conventions to join forces and share their expertise under the leadership of UNESCO, and to coordinate their bilateral and international emergency relief projects for achieving the maximum possible benefit;

32. Commit ourselves to promote the objectives of this declaration in order to strengthen the international protection of cultural and natural heritage and to actively contribute to the Global Coalition launched by the Director-General of UNESCO, recognizing that building peace tomorrow requires defending our common heritage of diversity and tolerance today.

(©UNESCO http://whc.unesco.org/document/137641)

 

 

2015年5月-6月,联盟资助两位法国建筑师在尼泊尔震后前往担任志愿者期间的相关支持服务工作
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